3rd Year


  1. This is when knights had to promise to be loyal, to be honest and to protect women and children.
  2. Fire because most houses were wooden and disease such as the black death.
  3. A moat was the water surrounding a castle; a keep was the main building that the lord and his family lived in; a portcullis was a special spiked gate used for protection.
  4. At the age of seven, a young boy became an apprentice and lived in the house of a master craftsman for up to seven years. He received no pay but was given ffod and a place to live. He also got the chance to learn the skills of the trade. Some apprentices were treated very badly by their masters. At the end of seven years an apprentice became a journeyman, which meant he was free to go and seek work for himself in another town. he then got paid by the day for his work. If he wanted to become a master craftsman he would have to produce a masterpiece, which would then be examined by the members of the guild. If he was successful he could then set up his very own workshop and take on apprentices of his own.
  5. The Life of a Serf  A serf lived in a small house with wattle and daub walls, an earthen floor and a thatched roof. Serfs lived in small villages all over the country and the main buildings were the manor house and the church. Every serf owned a few animals and these were also kept inside the house at night. Most of their life was spent farming strips of land given to them by the lord of the manor. They grew crops such as oats, barley and turnips. They had to give ten percent of their crops to the church and they also had to work a few days per week for the lord. They also kept their cows, sheep and pigs on a big piece of land called the commons which was used by all the serfs. They weren’t allowed to fish in the rivers of hunt in the forests without the permission of the local lord.  They weren’t allowed to get married or leave the village without permission from the lord of the manor.
  1. The Roman Empire. Julius Caesar
  2. The house of a rich person was called a Domus. It had a central area called an Atrium. Floors were usually covered in mosaic tiles. Lots of marble was used. There were statues of different gods and goddesses. There was usually a walled garden to the rear.
  3. Food and Clothing: Most Roman men wore a tunic tied at the waist and everyone wore sandals. In public a white toga was worn over the tunic. Women wore a long dress called a stola. The main foods eaten were fish, wheat, olives and lots of people drank wine. The main meal of the day was called the cena. For rich Romans this meal lasted a few hours and all the food was served by slaves.
  4. Work, Arts and Crafts: Lots of people worked as farmers during the Roman Empire and had to supply the food such as wheat for the huge population of cities such as Rome. In large cities and town, many craftsmen such as potters had workshops on the ground floor of the apartment buildings called insulae. There were also many artists living in the towns who completed beautiful floor mosaics and wall paintings on the houses of the rich
  5. Burial Customs: Most Romans believed in an after-life. The bodies of both rich and poor were cremated. The ashes were placed in urns and buried in special cemeteries outside the city walls. Rich families hired professional mourners to cry in public. A coin was usually placed under the dead person’s tongue to pay the ferryman who would carry the spirit safely across the river Styx.
  6. The Roman Empire built a vast road network all over Europe as well as a system of bringing water to towns and cities called Aqueducts. Also the Roman style of architecture has been copied all over the world and many of the words used in the English language today are derived from the language of the Romans.
  1. Mount Sandel in Derry
  2. It shows us just how skilled builders these ancient people were and it also shows us that they had an understanding of astronomy and believed in an after-life.
  3. Microliths were small sharp pieces of stone used to make tools. A saddle-stone was used to grind barley or wheat into meal. A cap-stone was the stone placed on top of a portal dolmen tomb. A fulachta fiadh was a hole in the ground in ancient Ireland used for cooking large portions of food.

(a) Housing: Celts lived in raths, crannogs or hill forts. Most people would have lived in a rath. This was a group of wattle and daub houses surrounded by a high wall made from either wood or earth. The wall was built for protection. Cattle were also brought inside the walls at night, as all of the people were farmers. One of the best and safest types of housing was the crannog. This was built in the middle of a lake and a wooden causeway was built across the water as the link to the surrounding land. The important Celtic people such as the Kings and nobles would probably have lived in hill forts as these gave them a great view over the surrounding countryside. An example of one of these is the Gianan Aileach fort in East Donegal.


(b) Food and clothing: People in Celtic Ireland produced all their own food. They grew crops such as wheat, oats and barley. They made bread and porridge and the grain was ground using a rotary quern. They also kept animas such as cattle, sheep and pigs and meat was eaten and butter and cheese made from milk. Cattle were very important to the Celts and were the measure of a person’s wealth. Meat for large feasts was cooked in a fulachta fiadh or on a spit over an open fire. For clothing, everything was hand made and the Celts liked brightly coloured clothing. Wool was the most common material used to make clothing. Both men and women wore tunics and heavy cloaks made of wool. They dyed their clothes lots of different colours using wild berries and mosses. Leather from animals was also used to make belts, sandals and boots for both men and women.


(c) Work, arts and crafts: Most people in Celtic Ireland worked as farmers. The slaves who were captured in wars did lots of work. Craftsmen were very important such as the carpenters, potters and smiths. Skilled craftsmen such as goldsmiths created beautiful gold torcs and other jewellery for the nobles. A torc was made from gold or silver and worn around the neck.An example of a piece of jewellery that has been found was the Tara brooch. Another piece of Celtic jewellery found was the Broighter Torc. People in Celtic Ireland also used a type of writing called ogham, which was used on standing stones which probably maked a grave or land boundaries. They also carved designs on to stones such as the Turoe Stone that is in County Galway


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